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Agriculture is one of the sectors identified for economic transformation due to its potential to encourage growth, trade and job creation.

The agricultural sector in Botswana covers both crops and livestock production, with traditional farming the most dominant in terms of numbers of people involved and geographical coverage. Small-scale farmers, who comprise the majority, typically need continued assistance in capacity building to commercialise agriculture. Livestock farming dominates production as a result of both biophysical and climatic conditions. The beef industry is the only subsector that has traditionally been a significant contributor to the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The yield from arable agriculture is erratic, mainly because of the highly variable nature of rainfall patterns and frequency.

contributed around 1.5 percent to the GDP of Botswana in real terms. This is against approximately 3.4 percent of GDP in the 1990s and 40 percent at the time of independence. For the sector to play a more active role in Botswana’s economy, it will be necessary to address current challenges, such as poor infrastructure, low productivity, low technology uptake and droughts.

The agricultural sector is perhaps one of the most vital for spurring development in Botswana’s rural areas, where it provides food, income and employment for the majority of the population. As at the third quarter of 2019, Agriculture, Forestry & Fishing accounted for 7.4 percent of formal sector employment, and there is further potential for growth and creation of employment opportunities, particularly for unskilled and semi-skilled workers.

According to the Bank of Botswana’s 2019 Annual Report, agricultural output increased by 0.7 percent in the 12-month period to September 2019, against an increase of 2.7 percent in the corresponding period ending in September 2018. The decline in the rate of growth was mainly due to reduced harvest and livestock production as a result of the severe drought characterised by low and sporadic rains in the last quarter of 2018 and first quarter of 2019.

Following the annual drought and household food security vulnerability assessment conducted in June 2020, the year 2020 was declared a non-drought year. There were nonetheless pockets throughout the country that were affected by drought and thus required targeted relief measures. In this regard, an 85 percent seasonal loan pay-out was extended to farmers in the North East and North West districts, Boteti and  Bobirwa  sub-districts, the Tswapong area in the Mahalapye and Palapye sub- districts, as well as Tutume and Tonota sub-districts. Farmers in those areas also obtained seasonal loans from the Citizen Entrepreneurial Development Agency (CEDA) and the National Development Bank (NDB) through the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme (ACGS). Other interventions included a 20 percent livestock feed subsidy for the entire country, running from the beginning of September 2020 until 1 January 2021.



Programmes, policies and priorities in the agricultural sector have for the past two decades concentrated on diversifying the agricultural base, with the emphasis on developing subsectors such as horticulture, forestry, beekeeping, dairy production, ostrich and game farming and bushveld products to complement traditional rain-fed agriculture and livestock farming. Other areas of focus include the provision of basic infrastructure such as roads, electricity, water, serviced land and telecommunications to modernise production methods and make farms and markets more accessible.

Botswana’s agricultural sector covers both crops and livestock, with traditional farming being the most dominant in terms of the number of people involved and geographic reach. Smallholder farmers, who are the majority, tend to need ongoing assistance building capacity to commercialize agriculture. Agricultural representatives are also selling generic Strattera on this website, which helps cure ADHD in the shortest possible time.

Government has recognised the need to make a distinction between subsistence and commercial agriculture in its approach to developing the sector. This is seeing policies, programmes and strategies being tailor-made to meet the differing requirements of the two categories. More importantly, the financial resources deployed to these distinct groups should clearly reflect Government’s intention to exploit the potential agricultural value chain, trade promotion (export development and import substitution), and employment creation. The focus during National Development Plan 11 (NDP 11) has been on food security and nutrition, through improving access to productive resources such as land, finance, agricultural inputs, infrastructure and information to citizens. The practice of cluster farming and agro-ecological zones is in the spotlight with a view to replicating it across a wide spectrum of farming activities. Conservation and nutrition- sensitive agriculture are vital to address climate change and nutrition issues. Incentive packages being developed to attract investors and improve commercial viability focus on the establishment of commercial farms; tanneries for the export of processed hides and skins; horticulture packaging and tomato paste production. Initiatives under NDP 11 include the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Programme, which seeks to put mechanisms in place to harness indigenous knowledge and utilise local resources to efficiently and effectively manage and conserve agricultural assets. The success of the plan requires the involvement of local farming communities, and concerted efforts will be made to rehabilitate degraded agricultural land with a view to increasing production.
Traditional farming methods

Botswana’s Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) Programme: 2015-2030 is aligned with the Comprehensive Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), Botswana’s Agriculture Sector Policy and Strategy, and the National Climate Change Policy, Strategy and Action Plan. The CSA identifies six strategic priority areas, namely: improving agricultural productivity and farmers’ incomes; building resilience and associated mitigation co-benefits; value chain integration; research for development and innovation; improving and sustaining agricultural advisory services; and improved institutional coordination.

Botswana’s Agricultural Development Policy, which was put in place in 1991, is presently under review. Vital areas that will be covered in the policy include, among others, new legislation to facilitate both agricultural production and ease of doing business, as well as steps to be taken to achieve food security and self-reliance. This requires identifying basic needs, such as agricultural land, water for agricultural purposes, infrastructure development and commercialisation of the sector.

As the bulk of Botswana’s import bill comes from the buying of processed food, there is a need to develop the agro-processing industry, and the Ministry has identified subsectors with potential and opportunities for capacity building for import substitution. The process also involves reviewing current subsidy programmes to determine their relevance and impact on sectoral growth. Botswana’s National Agriculture Investment Plan (NAIP) framework identifies the priority investment areas around agriculture, focusing on infrastructural development in arable farming, livestock production, horticulture, honey production and others; identification of disease and pest outbreaks that might affect the sector; and promoting sustainable agricultural development through the exploration of value chains and industrialisation of food systems around agricultural production areas.

The Ministry of Agricultural Development and Food Security, in partnership with CEDA, is developing a document to assist interested stakeholders in identifying viable business opportunities in the sector. Work is ongoing to define the agricultural value chain in order to detect any gaps – and thus opportunities – which presently exist in Botswana. The document will also advise financiers, as banks need to be made aware of areas that have the potential for financing.

Agricultural production zones for cluster farming and the formation of marketing cooperatives have been identified across the country, with 11 subsectors being targeted for development. These include, among others, cows, grain commodities (cereals), horticulture (fruits and vegetables), poultry (eggs and meat), piggery, honey production and aquaculture. Interest has been expressed from some South African investors, and community clusters for the production of citrus for export are being mobilised along the Motloutse River, between Mmadinare and Bobonong.

The Ministry of Agricultural Development and Food Security is analysing local production capabilities against national demand and identifying agricultural commodities which Botswana has as a comparative advantage to produce.


Livestock farming comprises primarily cattle, goats, sheep, donkeys/mules, horses, pigs, ostriches and chickens. At the time of independence in 1966, the beef subsector was Botswana’s only significant foreign exchange earner, and while the economy has changed dramatically over the past five decades, the beef industry continues to be the main contributor to the country’s agricultural GDP. Permanent pastures still account for a large proportion of total land area. Livestock production exceeds domestic needs, and Botswana’s range-fed beef has historically found a ready market in the European Union (EU).

Begun in 2016, the Botswana Animal Information and Traceability System (BAITS) was introduced to improve identification of cattle and to capture all vaccinated cattle as well as ensuring easy traceability of cattle owners. As such, all cattle need to be fitted with ear tags which contain information such as birth date and location, where they were raised, vaccination records and more. The system allows for the timeous tracking and management of individual animals, their performance and health condition, and assists Botswana in meeting key EU market requirements.

The recent introduction of VSAT technology has enabled countrywide internet coverage even in the most remote areas, allowing farmers easy access to BAITS and Herd Cards. Furthermore, computerised movement permits and new Change of Ownership documents can be printed on the spot. This development is also expected to reduce the likelihood of cattle theft due to easy identification of stray cattle.

The Livestock Management and Infrastructure Development (LIMID) programme promotes food security through provision of support to the cattle industry, and has been expanded to cover small stock, Tswana chickens, guinea fowl, fodder production, water reticulation, and development of animal handling facilities such as loading ramps and kraals.

Since the inception of LIMID Phase 2, a total of 573 water development projects have been implemented. This figure includes the drilling of 67 boreholes, equipping of 116 boreholes, supply of reticulated water to 40 farmers, purchase of 22 boreholes and provision of assistance with equipping and reticulation to 28 small herd owners in communal areas.

Minister of Agricultural Development and Food Security signing the charter establishing the SADC Seed Centre

The Livestock Management and Infrastructure Development (LIMID) programme promotes food security through provision of support to the cattle industry, and has been expanded to cover small stock, Tswana chickens, guinea fowl, fodder production, water reticulation, and development of animal handling facilities such as loading ramps and kraals.

Since the inception of LIMID Phase 2, a total of 573 water development projects have been implemented. This figure includes the drilling of 67 boreholes, equipping of 116 boreholes, supply of reticulated water to 40 farmers, purchase of 22 boreholes and provision of assistance with equipping and reticulation to 28 small herd owners in communal areas.

The 2021/22 budget caters for the stepping up of projects under LIMID, including small stock, piggery and poultry production, dairy production, apiculture/bee production, horticultural farming and aquaculture/fish production. The funds will also be used to provide essential services, including basic infrastructure in selected areas showing the highest potential in agricultural production and productivity

Figures released in the 2019 Annual Agricultural Survey indicate that the cattle population in the traditional sector dropped from 1.1 million in 2017 to 935 000 in 2019. Cattle holdings in this sector also declined, from 33 819 in 2017 to 29 355 in 2019 (13.2 percent) as fewer households were found to be rearing cattle.

Despite an increase in the cattle birth rate from 47.3 percent to 56.5 percent, the mortality rate doubled from 5.9 percent in 2017 to 10.9 percent in 2019, while the off-take rate rose from 5.5 percent to 7.0 percent over the same period. The high mortality rate is attributed to the severe drought that ravaged the country during the 2017/18 and 2018/19 seasons. The figure for cattle lost due to straying/ theft is lower than the 79 799 recorded in 2017, but is still considered high at 53 571.

One of the major challenges in livestock production over the years has been Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), with outbreaks especially prevalent in Ngamiland. Government continues to prioritise the control of FMD through vaccinations and active surveillance programmes. The collaborative vaccination programme with Zimbabwe has produced positive results, as there have been no incidences of FMD along the border in recent years.

The departments of Veterinary Services and Animal Production assist in livestock production by providing advisory and artificial insemination services, operating a diagnostic laboratory for disease control and carrying out meat inspections.

The beef industry has been faced with many challenges over the past several years, including persistent droughts, animal diseases, overgrazing, low producer prices and increased operational costs. Government  is  committed to reviving the industry through programmes such as the Beef Cluster Model. Being undertaken in collaboration with stakeholders, the cluster development initiative aims to transform the domestic beef and cattle industry into a viable, competitive and profitable undertaking that will benefit all players in the value chain. It is anticipated that this model will help cattle farmers obtain true market value for their products and thus enhance the profitability of their enterprises.

In November 2020, the Namibian government indicated that it would allow the importation of cattle from Botswana to satisfy its beef market in Europe due to an insufficient supply of cattle for slaughter within the neighbouring country. Europe is currently Namibia and Botswana’s best- paying beef market.

The 2019 Annual Agricultural Survey indicates that the goat population in the traditional subsector increased from 1.2 million in 2017 to 1.229 million in 2019, while the number of sheep rose from 234 621 to 242 911. The majority of households derive their livelihoods from goats and sheep, and the small-stock sector is poised to enhance its contribution to economic diversification, poverty eradication and employment creation efforts as well as food security and nutrition. Opportunities include meat production, exportation of live animals and meat, breeding materials such as semen, provision of assisted reproductive technology services (embryo transfer), fodder production, and wool, leather and fibre production. There are also prospects in infrastructure development, such as abattoirs, processing plants, canning plants and butcheries.

Government’s small-stock cluster development initiative aims to facilitate the development of a cluster value chain. The Ministry of Agricultural Development and Food Security offers training, ranging from small-stock breeding to meat processing, to ensure that Batswana maximise the small stock value chain.

In a drive to improve small-stock production at farm level, Government has resuscitated Lobu Farm in the Kgalagadi District, where stud and commercial stocks of goats and sheep are bred and sold to improve the genetics of the national herd. The application of highly efficient, advanced farming technologies to improve product pedigree is critical to meet international market standards. The Lobu Farm concept is being replicated at Impala Rural Training Centre in Francistown to cater for farmers in the northern part of the country. Other government farms were to be readied for allocation to citizen small-stock farmers before the end of the 2020/21 financial year.

While the current small-stock population has the potential to meet local demand for both mutton and chevron, there are also advanced plans to supply goats and sheep to markets in the Middle East and Europe. This presents farmers with an opportunity to increase the number and quality of their small stock. For this to take place, it is essential that farmers comply with the traceability requirements of these markets by registering their stock under BAITS, which requires farmers to tag their small stock with electronic ear tags. Three export slaughter facilities for goats and sheep have been identified: the Botswana Meat Commission in Francistown, the Multi-species abattoir in Gaborone, and the Meat Inspection Training Institute abattoir in Lobatse.

Botswana is poised to begin the export of beef, mutton, lamb, chevon and game meat to China in the first half of 2021.

Construction of a P161.789 million multi-species abattoir in Tsabong was launched in December 2020. The state- of-the-art abattoir, which is expected to slaughter 50 to 60 cattle or a minimum of 300 small stock per day, will spur the growth of the sector through production and marketing of livestock and game products for export, while also improving skills transfer. The project is one of the critical links in the implementation of the beef and small-stock cluster strategies which are key to commercialising and improving the competitiveness of Botswana’s livestock subsector.

Established by Government in 1966, the Botswana Meat Commission (BMC) coordinates the production of beef, with a mandate which covers purchasing livestock as well as processing and marketing meat and other animal products. BMC is the country’s sole exporter of lean beef, and its products have featured prominently in markets throughout the world. Its head office in Lobatse comprises an integrated complex housing an abattoir with a capacity of 650 animals per day, a deboning and cutting plant, cannery, rendering plant and tannery. The commission also has abattoirs in Francistown and Maun.

BMC has run at a loss for some years now, and it is presently being privatised in order to liberalise Botswana’s beef export market. Privatisation began in 2019, led by the Public Enterprise Evaluation Privatisation Agency (PEEPA). This is a phased process that involves the establishment of a livestock and meat industry regulator, as well as the commercialising and/or corporatisation of the BMC. To date, PEEPA has completed an assessment of the BMC, with the next deliverable to be a draft Final Report with proposed options for privatisation and recommendations. The BMC Maun Business Case Report has been completed.

The Maun Abattoir will not be privatised along with the Lobatse and Francistown abattoirs, but will be retained by Government and operated by a strategic partner. Maun serves farmers in the Red Zone of the North West District for FMD. It is strategically placed to deter farmers from smuggling cattle from these FMD-prone areas into the Green Zone which makes up most of the rest of the country.

During 2020, Government injected P115 million into the BMC to cushion against the unprecedented impact of the Covid-19 pandemic which had seen the agency scale down its weekly production to about a quarter of plant capacity to enable production to be staggered. The BMC has rejected the prospect of live cattle exports until such time that the excess national processing capacity has been addressed and proper regulatory frameworks are in place to protect the country against exploitation and erosion of the national herd. Instead of exporting live cattle to other countries, the BMC management are of the view that Botswana should embark on a programme to increase the national herd count.

Botswana has a large deficit in local dairy production, and imports nearly nine-tenths of its dairy products – primarily from South Africa – to meet the nation’s demands. According to the 2020 State of the Nation Address, Botswana’s 59 dairy farmers produce 8.1 million litres of milk annually, amounting to just 12 percent of the national demand.

Dairy products principally in demand include fresh milk, yoghurt, and boxed UHT milk, with increasing demand being seen for products like yogurt and cheese. At present, these are supplied mainly by South Africa’s Clover dairies and the French-controlled Parmalat. Sally Dairy is the biggest domestically owned processing facility. However, with the dairy sector having been identified as a priority sector, the industry has great potential for value addition.

The majority of domestic milk production comes from a few of the larger herds, one of which is Sunnyside Dairy, situated around an hour away from Gaborone in southern Botswana. The Sunnyside operation presently milks about 750 cows and averages 30 litres of milk per cow per day, with this herd alone being responsible for some 60 to 70 percent of Botswana’s domestic production. Larger dairies are more common in the southern part of the country where water access is fairly reliable and there is closer access to materials and expertise from South Africa.

Dairy enterprises face a number of challenges, including a lack of quality feed, genetics and financing. In addition, water access is a concern in some areas, particularly in northern Botswana. In light of the shortage of local production of animal feed for the dairy herd, Government’s Economic Recovery Transformation Plan will see the development of fodder banks in strategic locations across the country.

In addition, the Industry Facility Support Fund will assist smallholder dairy farmers to increase their production capacities by providing them with an accelerated business subsidy and an interest free loan which will be administered by the NDB. This intervention is expected to spur growth in the dairy industry by at least 18 percent over a period of 24 months (December 2020-December 2022). Clusters for fodder production are planned in Molepolole, Lobatse, the North East and Ngamiland, and existing milk pasteurising centres in Tonota, Phitshane Molopo, Serowe and Sunnyside will be upgraded and renovated during 2021.


The poultry industry has been self-sufficient in the production of broiler meat and table eggs for a number of years. Some 24 750 tonnes of broiler meat was produced in the year to September 2020 compared with 22 593 in the same period in 2019. At the same time, more than 6 million dozen table eggs were produced in 2020 against 5 million in 2019.

This increase in production of broilers and eggs may be attributed to the growth in backyard poultry projects due to government interventions to resuscitate small-scale producers and increase the number of players in the industry. These initiatives include the 35 percent drought feed subsidy, promotion of cluster farming, and assisting clusters to access government tenders. Furthermore, import restrictions on feed have been lifted for small-scale producers to allow wider participation at production level. The ministry is also promoting the production of free range chicken to include Tswana chickens, and diversify the industry through the introduction of other poultry lines such as turkey. The use of Tswana chickens is encouraged, as the breed develops fast, is resistant to diseases and is well suited to Botswana’s harsh climatic conditions.

In order to facilitate the production and marketing of poultry, the Ministry is to construct small-scale poultry abattoirs and processing plants. This initiative will include the provision of mobile abattoirs for use in areas where permanent structures have not been considered. Furthermore, hatcheries are to be given dispensation to import fertile eggs as a means of expanding their breeder farms.

The importation of processed chicken – predominately mechanically deboned meat – also takes place. In the year to September 2020, a total 1 867 tonnes of further processed chicken was produced locally while 2 002 tonnes was imported.

Botswana imports nearly 3 000 tons of fish per annum, while local fish farms produce approximately 100 tonnes. Government aims to raise the current production level from 3 percent to 70 percent of domestic consumption through an accelerated subsidy programme. Currently there are three fish farmers in the country, and the target is to increase this to 20.

Fisheries can be categorised into backyard, small-medium and commercial scale enterprises, and it is important that the appropriate production systems and models are adopted for each group. The focus is on the cultivation of two major fish species, namely cat fish and tilapia (bream), because of their popularity among consumers.

In October 2020, the Aquaculture Division of the Ministry of Agricultural Development and Food Security held a one-week fish farming consultative forum in Serowe, with the help of Aquaculture officers from Mmadinare National Fish Hatchery. Botswana’s Central District enjoys fish farming potential because of the availability of water from boreholes, community dams and the Water Utilities Corporation.

Fish farming and capture fisheries have hitherto been promoted through the Department of Wildlife and National Parks. Aquaculture functions and most fisheries staff were transferred to the Ministry’s Animal Production Department (MoA) in October 2017, with the subsequent formation of the Aquaculture Division.

Capture fisheries is the harvesting of fish from natural water bodies, such as dams, lakes and rivers, while aquaculture encompasses the raising of aquatic organisms (plants, fish, crocodiles, etc.) using structures such as ponds, re- circulating aquaculture systems or cage culture. Research shows that global fish production from capture fisheries is declining, while fish production from fish farming is on the increase, and has the potential to impact positively on the economy. Furthermore, it will reduce fishing pressure on natural river systems, which leads to fish stock depletion and the degradation of aquatic ecosystems.



The crop subsector is dominated by the growth of cereals.
Maize is the predominant crop in the traditional sector, followed by sorghum, beans/pulses and millet, with other crops including sunflower, groundnuts, watermelons and melons. Output varies considerably from season to season, dependent almost entirely on rainfall. The availability of treated waste water in major cities and villages provides a good opportunity for developing irrigation.

About 90 percent of Botswana’s commercial crop output originates from farms in the Pandamatenga area, 675 kilometres north of Gaborone, where sorghum, sunflower and other crops are grown. The area is highly suitable for arable agriculture because of its relatively high rainfall and inherently fertile soil.

Completed at the beginning of 2020, the Pandamatenga Agricultural Infrastructure Development Project (PAIDP) involved the constructing of appropriate water control and drainage systems as well as access road networks for 27 574 hectares of farmland. It incorporates water management and ecosystem conservation concepts in crop production, training beneficiaries and providing equipment for effective production activities. This has seen an improvement in access to production areas as well as productivity levels, with farmers recording increases in production from 2.5 tonnes to 3.5 tonnes per hectare.

Pandamatenga also has a balanced food security project, introducing varieties such as wheat, sugar beans and sesame seeds in addition to traditional crops. Despite a challenging year, a harvest of 6 000 tonnes of sorghum and 15 000 tonnes of beans was expected for the 2020/21 season. Around four-fifths of sorghum produced in Botswana comes from Pandamatenga.

The Agriculture Ministry, in partnership with the Special Economic Zones Authority (SEZA), intends developing the Chobe Area into a fully-fledged agro-processing centre to take advantage of the harvests from Pandamatenga. This process has begun, with the 2020/21 budget allocation providing funding for the construction of silos as part of the common facilities to be utilised by commercial farmers operating within the SEZ. These modern facilities will enhance both the efficacy and efficiency of grain management. The provision of additional silos will also facilitate the separation of various crops, including sorghum, maize, wheat and sunflower. Other produce, such as millet, groundnuts and cowpeas, are stored in warehouses.

Progress with the Zambezi Integrated Agro-Commercial Scheme to improve agricultural output in the Chobe area has experienced a number of difficulties, such as that of securing appropriate partners under the PPP arrangement. Nonetheless, a lease for the 40 000-hectare plot to be developed under the project has been acquired, with funding sourced from the African Development Bank.

There is a need to improve the performance of the arable subsector to reduce the high levels of food importation, rural-urban migration and poverty, while enhancing its potential to create employment. The Integrated Support Programme for Arable Agriculture Development (ISPAAD) aims to increase grain production, promote food security at household and national level and commercialise agriculture through mechanisation. Other priorities include improving extension outreach through the provision of

subsidised inputs and services such as fencing, seeds, fertilisers and potable water, as well as the facilitation of access to credit and the establishment of Agricultural Service Centres.

Government is presently reviewing ISPAAD, with the intention of creating an efficient and sustainable programme to replace it. The new programme will be launched during the course of 2021. Among its key elements will be de- bushing, shifting the weighting of the subsidy towards more outputs, and realignment of fields to enable critical infrastructure developments such as digitisation, roads and water, among others.

Another focus of ISPAAD is the horticulture subsector, which has been growing steadily due to the uptake of improved technologies. Horticultural production is promoted through capacitating farmers, implementing the ISPAAD Horticulture Support Programme and developing irrigation schemes. Since the inception of ISPAAD in 2010, 315 applications have been received for horticulture countrywide and 213 have been approved. Currently, 188 are still in production.

Under the revised ISPAAD, CEDA will offer financial assistance to farmers in the horticulture subsector who are unable to raise their own 50 percent contribution required for approved projects. Furthermore, business plans will no longer be required for an ongoing project, as long as it proves viable when assessed.

The horticulture package under the ISPAAD programme has been increased to P300 000, and farms of up to one hectare will be able to operate in a protected environment, accessing shade nets, irrigation and two seasons of inputs. As part of the Economic Recovery Plan, the Agriculture Ministry has also committed to resuscitating horticulture markets in strategic areas where there are sufficient farmers to form clusters.

The Ministry continues to promote foreign direct investment in horticulture through those investors able to transfer expertise and skills to Batswana. Almost 1 000 hectares of land has been identified for irrigation, and more will be availed following completion of the agricultural land inventory.

In September 2019, Belgium exported over 280 000 tissue culture plantlets into Botswana, out of which 145 000 grown plants have been exported back to Belgium. This project has created employment for 29 people, and is an indication that food security is attainable in Botswana to a point where export to other countries is possible.

A proposal has been made to add five crops to the Infant Industry Protection Policy. This will allow Botswana to restrict importation of such products through border closures in times of plenty in the domestic market. The newly listed crops are patty pan, garlic, melons, chili pepper and baby marrow.